Admixture refers to ancestry from more than one recent population group. Many people today have ancestry from more than one population and/or location.
An allele is a genetic variant at a specific point, locus, in our genetic code.
In genetic genealogy, the ancestral haplotype is the set of marker values of your ancestor.
genetic material inherited equally from mother and father. It’s less useful genealogically than Y-DNA and mtDNA because it mutates more often. Genetic tests to determine ethnic origins—African, Native American, Viking—typically analyze autosomal DNA.
a threadlike strand of DNA that carries genes and transmits hereditary information.
Person through whom two or more persons claim descent or lineage
Degree of relationship between persons who descend from a common ancestor. A father and son are related by lineal consanguinity, uncle and nephew by collateral sanguinity.
the molecule that contains each cell’s genetic code, organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes. Genetic genealogy tests analyze your Y-DNA, mtDNA or autosomal DNA.
GEnealogy Data COMmunications, or, the universal file format for genealogy databases that allows users of different software programs to share their data with others.
a hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome, and determines a particular characteristic in an organism.
The study of your family’s history; the process of tracing your ancestors back through time.
represents a specific location on a chromosome where the basic genetic units exist in a variable number of repeated copies
the compilation of multiple genetic markers; serves as the unique genetic identifier for any given individual.
an identification of the genetic group your ancient ancestors (10,000 to 60,000 years ago) belonged to; sometimes referred to as your branch of the world’s family tree
collectively, the marker values on your Y-DNA test results
Direct line of descent from an ancestor; progeny
Line of descent traced through the mother's ancestry
genetic material both males and females inherit from their mothers. Because it’s passed down mostly unchanged from mothers to daughters, mtDNA can tell you about your maternal line—but the results reveal only “deep ancestry,” not definitive links to recent generations.
Nucleic acids are the basic components of our genetic code. DNA is made up of four types of nucleic acids: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
Recombination is the mixing of the DNA on each chromosome that you receive from your mother and father. Different chromosomes and different parts of each chromosome are more or less likely to recombine in a single generation.
Last name, family name
genetic material passed down from father to son. Because surnames also pass from father to son, Y-DNA tests can confirm (or disprove) genealogical links through a paternal line. Y-DNA surname studies are the most popular application of genetic genealogy.
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